Illinois cdl hazmat test. More Illinois CDL Practice Test: ( indicates current test...

This section of the Illinois CDL (commercial drive

The CDL or Commercial Driver’s Licence test is not administered in Spanish. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration regulations require that the test only be administered in English.To obtain a CDL Hazmat license in Illinois, you must meet the following requirements: 1. Be at least 21 years old: You must be at least 21 years old to obtain a CDL Hazmat license in Illinois. 2. Hold a valid CDL: You must already have a valid commercial driver's license (CDL) or be applying for a CDL at the same time as the Hazmat endorsement. 3.The Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials (H) Endorsement can be added to a valid Illinois CDL by passing a Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials written test, providing required documentation, being fingerprinted and passing a background check, and paying the required fees. Check your specific Illinois CDL Information for details.If you want to obtain a commercial driver's license (CDL) in Illinois, you need to study the official CDL manual provided by the Illinois Secretary of State. This manual covers all the topics and skills you need to know for the written and road tests, such as vehicle inspection, traffic laws, safety rules, and more. Download the PDF version of the manual and …To obtain a HazMat endorsement in Illinois, you must take a written test consisting of 30 questions and achieve at least an 80% test score. You can find the study material in section 9 of your Illinois CDL Manual. The topics cover: The intent of the regulations. Transportation of hazardous material.To pass, the applicant must answer at least 24 questions correctly. Each question has three or four possible answer choices. Test questions come from the South Dakota Commercial Driver License Manual. Questions come from the chapter covering: Hazardous Materials. The Hazardous Materials endorsement can be used with Class A, B and C CDL.To obtain a CDL Hazmat license in Illinois, you must meet the following requirements: 1. Be at least 21 years old: You must be at least 21 years old to obtain a CDL Hazmat license in Illinois. 2. Hold a valid CDL: You must already have a valid commercial driver's license (CDL) or be applying for a CDL at the same time as the Hazmat endorsement. 3.Our Free Illinois CDL Practice Tests have been helping future truckers pass the official state exams and get their CDL since 2004. Our IL CDL test questions and answers cover everything you’ll need to be thoroughly prepared when you go and take the real exams. These tests are in Classic, Practice, and Exam Modes. IL HazMat - Test 4 helps you prepare for your Illinois CDL Practice Test. It's all up-to-date permit practice tests based on 2023 Illinois CDL Manual. Take our DMV practice tests …Class A/B + Endorsements Cheat Sheet $38.99. Name. Email. Coupon. Proceed To Checkout. DMV CDL Practice Test Study Guide. 2023 Illinois Cheat Sheet. No need to read IL handbook. Review all Questions & Answers from your local DMV. Get your Cheat Sheet Today. 99% pass rate. 100% Money Back Guarantee!Class A/B + Endorsements Cheat Sheet $38.99. Name. Email. Coupon. Proceed To Checkout. DMV CDL Practice Test Study Guide. 2023 Illinois Cheat Sheet. No need to read IL handbook. Review all Questions & Answers from your local DMV. Get your Cheat Sheet Today. 99% pass rate. 100% Money Back Guarantee!To pass, the applicant must answer at least 24 questions correctly. Each question has three or four possible answer choices. Test questions come from the South Dakota Commercial Driver License Manual. Questions come from the chapter covering: Hazardous Materials. The Hazardous Materials endorsement can be used with Class A, B and C CDL.Free Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test Let's get 100% ready for your CDL test with our lastest Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test. Start learning now! Home Study Plan Get Pro …The Texas hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The TX CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Texas CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for your …Correct answers to pass: 40 Passing score: 80% Test locations: Secretary of State (SOS) Offices Test languages: English, Spanish Based upon: Illinois CDL Book Improve your chances of passing the test by reading the official Illinois drivers manual Drivers Manual Do you need to sit the Illinois CDL hazmat test?1. Meet the HazMat endorsement requirements. · Being at least 21 years-old. · Having a valid Commercial Driver's License (CDL) or CDL permit. · Obtaining proof of ...With this HazMat practice test, you will get plenty of practice questions that are similar to the official Illinois CDL exams. These questions are designed to give you an idea of what to expect when you take the real test. You will get instant feedback after each question you answer, and you will get to see why your answer is correct or incorrect.The hazardous material endorsement test and the security threat assessment are both required at every renewal for all CDL holders with the H or X endorsement who wish to maintain the endorsement. When renewing a CDL with a H or X endorsement, the driver must begin the process 60 days prior to the expiration date on the CDL.On our website, we provide FREE practice - CDL hazmat test online! The official exam test consists of several obligatory parts, with all of them checking your knowledge of different blocks of road rules. If you need to obtain a IL CDL hazmat endorsement in 2021, practice as much as.. Read More. Number of Question 30. Passing Score 24.The test consists of 20 multiple choice questions. To pass, the applicant must answer at least 16 questions correctly. Test questions come from the Illinois Commercial Driver’s License Study Guide. Questions come from chapters covering: Driving Safely, Tank Vehicles and Combination Vehicles.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is the first step in getting the endorsement.Our Free Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test is the closest thing to the real exam! Featuring 30 authentic multiple-choice questions, you will get an authentic testing experience. Thanks to the official Illinois CDL Handbook our questions and accompanying answer explanations are same types of questions as the DMV exam. The Colorado hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The CO CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Colorado CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for ...In order to qualify for a CDL in the statethere are certain requirements that must be met. First of all, you must be a licensed driver 21 years old or older. You must have a clear driving record which is free of any type of infractions. Finally, you must successfully complete all of the required testing and obtain a photo ID card.The IL CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Illinois CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for your exam!On our website, we provide FREE practice - CDL hazmat test online! The official exam test consists of several obligatory parts, with all of them checking your knowledge of different blocks of road rules. If you need to obtain a IL CDL hazmat endorsement in 2021, practice as much as.. Read More. Number of Question 30. Passing Score 24.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is …Our Free Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test is the closest thing to the real exam! Featuring 30 authentic multiple-choice questions, you will get an authentic testing experience. Thanks to the official Illinois CDL Handbook our questions and accompanying answer explanations are same types of questions as the DMV exam.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is …A CDL Hazardous Materials practice test simulates the official test you'll take at the DMV. The test's 30 questions are taken from the 2023 Illinois CDL manual, just like the questions on the authorized test. Because of that, you will see the same types of questions on the practice test and the authorized test.The Texas hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The TX CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Texas CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for your …An Illinois resident may complete ELDT in another state. Facilities cannot accept paper copies of your ELDT training as proof of completion of ELDT; If you want to upgrade from a Non-CDL Class A J50 or J51, you must complete ELDT for a CDL Class A. You will be issued a Class A CLP that you must hold for 14 days before a skills test may be ...Online CDL Hazardous Materials Endorsement Test Question and Answers Course made up of hundreds of hazmat questions similar to those found on the CDL test.A CDL Hazardous Materials practice test simulates the official test you'll take at the DMV. The test's 30 questions are taken from the 2023 Illinois CDL manual, just like the questions on the authorized test. Because of that, you will see the same types of questions on the practice test and the authorized test.On our website, we provide FREE practice - CDL hazmat test online! The official exam test consists of several obligatory parts, with all of them checking your knowledge of different blocks of road rules. If you need to obtain a IL CDL hazmat endorsement in 2021, practice as much as.. Read More. Number of Question 30. Passing Score 24.Class A/B + Endorsements Cheat Sheet $38.99. Name. Email. Coupon. Proceed To Checkout. DMV CDL Practice Test Study Guide. 2023 Illinois Cheat Sheet. No need to read IL handbook. Review all Questions & Answers from your local DMV. Get your Cheat Sheet Today. 99% pass rate. 100% Money Back Guarantee!Hazmat Training is an eight-hour online course. The cost is $200.00. Submitting the application below is your first step. Your application will then be reviewed and you will be contacted. If you have any questions you may reach us at 918-352-7316. Start early on your background check and fingerprinting.The Illinois CDL test consists of 50 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 40 questions (80%). The general knowledge test covers the contents of the Illinois CDL Manual . All CDL applicants (Class A, B and C) must study the following sections: Driving Safely, Transporting Cargo Safely, Air Brakes (if you plan to operate ...Illinois » CDL Practice Test » IL Hazardous Material CDL Practice Test - 1 Test Description En Espanol IL Hazardous Material Fact Sheet Questions on Test: 30 Correct answers needed to pass: 24 Passing Score: 80% Age to apply: 18 Advertise Here! - Advertisement Advertise Here! - Advertisement Advertise Here! - Advertisement Excellent 5.0 ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Based on 372 reviews from review us on Bob Paul ★★★★★ I was looking for online training for HazMat, and found Midwest Truck Driving School, I liked what I saw, so I looked them up on the FMCSA registered OLDT providers list, and sure enough they were there. I purchased the Hazmat training, watched the video, and took …Use our series of CDL hazmat practice tests to prepare for and obtain your hazardous materials endorsement for a commercial driver's license. Each of these practice contain all of the 2022 hazmat test questions directly from the CDL manual.CDL Appointment Scheduling. Commercial Drivers License (CDL) Scheduling allows you to schedule a CDL appointment on line. It also discusses what is required to schedule an appointment or to call regarding information concerning CDL's.This license is required for driving any legal combination of vehicles, with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more, provided the GVWR of a trailer exceeds 10,000 pounds. To receive this license, applicants must pass a 50-question test. Test questions come from the Illinois Commercial Drivers License Study Guide. To …The Hazmat endorsement test typically consists of 30 multiple-choice questions, and you must answer at least 24 questions correctly to pass. You will have 60 minutes to complete the test. It is recommended to study the Iowa CDL Driver’s Manual and the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) provided by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety ...The Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials (H) Endorsement can be added to a valid Illinois CDL by passing a Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials written test, providing required documentation, being fingerprinted and passing a background check, and paying the required fees. Check your specific Illinois CDL Information for details.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is …Step 5–Check Status — To inquire on the status of your security threat assessment, you can visit the UES web site and click on the "Check Status" link to see if you have been approved. If you do not have access to the website, please call the UES Call Center directly at 855-347-8371. The issuance or renewal of a CDL with an H or X ...To pass, the applicant must answer at least 24 questions correctly. Each question has four possible answer choices. Test questions come from the Maryland Commercial Driver Guide. Questions come from the chapter covering: Hazardous Materials. The Hazardous Materials endorsement can be used with Class A, B and C CDL.The IL CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Illinois CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for your exam! Not Sure You Will Pass? Get a Pass Guarantee UPGRADE TO CDL PREMIUM 1.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is …Jun 25, 2023 · HazMat Practice Test. We have included 2 practice tests for you to use below. These exams can be used as part of your HazMat study guide. Make sure to review the answer explanations at the end of each exam to help you understand important concepts. HazMat Practice Test 1. HazMat Practice Test 2. If you are looking for practice exams for other ... NEW: HazMat Theory Requirement & ELDT Mandate. As part of the new ELDT requirements that went into effect on February 7, 2022, all drivers seeking a HazMat endorsement are required to complete a Hazardous Materials theory training program BEFORE testing at a local licensing agency.. The program must be provided by a …In order to obtain the Hazmat endorsement drivers are required to pass a Transportation Security Administration background check and a knowledge test. The Rhode Island hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The RI CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Rhode Island CDL ...The rule is 49 CFR 1572. On May 5, 2003, TSA published the rule to secure the transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat), including explosives, by requiring threat assessments for all individuals who apply for, renew, or transfer a Hazardous Materials Endorsement (HME) on their commercial driver’s license (CDL).To obtain a HazMat endorsement in Illinois, you must take a written test consisting of 30 questions and achieve at least an 80% test score. You can find the study material in …The Illinois CDL manual covers a variety of topics, and everything you'll need to study to pass your CDL test or get the endorsement you need, including: CDL general knowledge and requirements, combination vehicles, air brakes, tank vehicles, hazmat, doubles triples, passenger vehicles, school bus, vehicle inspection and road skills test. After ...Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials Practice Test (IL) 2023. Better than any Illinois drivers manual! Nail the CDL written test with this new HazMat practice test! 20 new questions to take you another step forward! 20 Questions. 80% Passing Score. 4 Mistakes Allowed. start the test.Jan 19, 2013 · There are many online CDL hazmat endorsement practice tests for you to take advantage of. You should check with your motor vehicle department as well, because many offer a free practice test so you can get an idea of the types of questions that you will be asked. It will also allow you see how much you know and where you need more help before ... The Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials (H) Endorsement can be added to a valid Illinois CDL by passing a Illinois CDL Hazardous Materials written test, providing required documentation, being fingerprinted and passing a background check, and paying the required fees. Check your specific Illinois CDL Information for details.40 Question Practice Test. 50 Question Practice Test. More Information About This Test. 2023 CDL Hazmat Test, completely free access to online Hazmat practice test questions and answers to study for your CDL Hazmat exam.Only US Citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States are eligible to apply for a commercial driver's license (CDL) with a hazmat endorsement.This is our Illinois Hazmat Endorsement Practice Quiz and Practice Test compiled of 30 questions each. Each question is worth one points for a total of 30 possible points. A passing score is 80%. The Hazmat Endorsement Practice Quiz reveals the correct answer during each question to help you study for the actual Hazmat Endorsement exam. The Illinois CDL test consists of 50 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 40 questions (80%). The general knowledge test covers the contents of the Illinois CDL Manual . All CDL applicants (Class A, B and C) must study the following sections: Driving Safely, Transporting Cargo Safely, Air Brakes (if you plan to operate ...This license is required for driving any legal combination of vehicles, with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more, provided the GVWR of a trailer exceeds 10,000 pounds. To receive this license, applicants must pass a 50-question test. Test questions come from the Illinois Commercial Drivers License Study Guide. To …0. Illinois CDL Practice Test 2023 with Study Guide [PDF]. You can also Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) Written test and manuals with endorsement practice test in printable PDF. Commercial drivers play a crucial role in ensuring the safe and efficient transportation of goods and passengers across the state of Illinois. Free North Carolina CDL HazMat Practice Test 2023. Welcome to the free NC CDL hazmat practice test for North Carolina drivers. As you know, Hazardous Materials (HazMat) endorsement which allows you to carry a wider range of loads, including those objects with more dangerous items requires more training.Free Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test Let's get 100% ready for your CDL test with our lastest Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test. Start learning now! Home Study Plan Get Pro Review Blog Login Select your State Search state Search state Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida GeorgiaThe test consists of 20 multiple choice questions. To pass, the applicant must answer at least 16 questions correctly. Test questions come from the Illinois Commercial Driver’s License Study Guide. Questions come from chapters covering: Driving Safely, Tank Vehicles and Combination Vehicles.The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is the first step in getting the endorsement. Our CDL practice tests: Based on 2021 IL commercial driver's license manual. Full answers + detailed explanations. Perfect for first-time, renewal applicants. IL CDL HazMat Test format: 30 questions. 24 correct answers to pass. 80% passing score.Requirements to Obtain an Original Illinois CLP or Transfer a CDL From Another State. You must be age 18 to apply for a Commercial Driver's License (CDL) or a Commercial Learner's Permit (CLP) to operate intrastate and age 21 to operate in interstate commerce or to transport passengers. To obtain a CLP, you must possess either a valid Illinois ... The CDL HAZMAT test is one in a series of tests that you’ll need to pass if you are planning to have a career as a truck driver. The test will check your knowledge of different cargo types, and when you’ve passed, you will be able to transport hazardous materials. If you plan to drive a class A, B, or C vehicle, you’ll need to sit and ...1. Meet the HazMat endorsement requirements. · Being at least 21 years-old. · Having a valid Commercial Driver's License (CDL) or CDL permit. · Obtaining proof of ...24 correct answers to pass. 80% passing score. This second IL Hazardous Materials (HazMat) practice test contains another set of 30 questions based on the official CDL manual. Just like the first test, this one is also designed to prepare you for the HazMat portion of your 2023 Commercial Driver’s License exam.Use this app to pass the official CLP (commercial learner's permit) or CDL exam for Class A, B, and C commercial licenses. This CDL Prep app covers the following: - CLP (Commercial Learner's Permit, aka CDL Permit) - CDL Class A test. - CDL Class B test. - CDL Class C test. - CDL Class B->A Upgrade test. - General Knowledge test.Pass your HazMat exam – guaranteed, or get your money back. Even if you haven’t taken a test in 10 years. And taking tests makes your hands sweat. With Premium, you’re 100% guaranteed to pass. How Pass Guarantee protects you. 95,2% Industry-leading pass rate.According to a Guttmacher Report on Public Policy prepared by Cynthia Dailard and Elizabeth Nash on December 2000, Arizona, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota and Utah are some of the states that require drug testing in newb...Our CDL practice tests: Based on 2021 IL commercial driver's license manual. Full answers + detailed explanations. Perfect for first-time, renewal applicants. IL CDL HazMat Test format: 30 questions. 24 correct answers to pass. 80% passing score. Study now. With over 30 years experience in the CDL field we have more questions that appear on the CDL written exams than any other site. Preparing for your IL Tanker exam just got easier. Based off of the 2023 IL CDL manual our free Tanker CDL Practice Test 1 will help you pass the first time.About this app. HazMat Test app is a free app to prepare yourself for the CDL hazmat test. In order to drive vehicles containing hazardous materials, it is necessary to have "H Endorsement" (Hazardous materials endorsement) with a commercial driver's license (CDL). This app contains questions from the actual hazmat exam held in 2017, …If you want to obtain a commercial driver's license (CDL) in Illinois, you need to study the official CDL manual provided by the Illinois Secretary of State. This manual covers all the topics and skills you need to know for the written and road tests, such as vehicle inspection, traffic laws, safety rules, and more. Download the PDF version of the manual and prepare for your CDL exam. Class A/B + Endorsements Cheat Sheet $38.99. Name. Email. Coupon. Proceed To Checkout. DMV CDL Practice Test Study Guide. 2023 Illinois Cheat Sheet. No need to read IL handbook. Review all Questions & Answers from your local DMV. Get your Cheat Sheet Today. 99% pass rate. 100% Money Back Guarantee!Prepare for your IL CDL Hazardous Materials (HazMat) exam with a practice test that simulates the official test from the 2023 Illinois CDL manual. The test has 30 …Entry-Level Driver Training (ELDT) Beginning February 7, 2022, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) has established new minimum training standards outlined in 49 CFR 380 for individuals applying for: Class A or Class B CDL for the first time. Upgrading an existing Class B CDL to a Class A CDL.Our Free Illinois CDL Hazmat Practice Test is the closest thing to the real exam! Featuring 30 authentic multiple-choice questions, you will get an authentic testing experience. Thanks to the official Illinois CDL Handbook our questions and accompanying answer explanations are same types of questions as the DMV exam.Don't stress over the Illinois CDL test - pass easily with the help of this free tanker practice test! Based on the 2023 driving book! 20 Questions. 80% Passing Score. 4 Mistakes Allowed. start the test. 90% of students found this test helpful! Rated 4.5 out of …This section of the Illinois CDL (commercial drivers license) Manual - Illinois CDL Handbook is for drivers who need a passenger vehicle endorsement to transport passengers. Vehicle Inspections, Loading and Unloading, Driving Techniques, Passenger Management, Miscellaneous Requirements. Prepare to pass the Illinois CDL Passenger …Our CDL practice tests: Based on 2021 IL commercial driver's license manual. Full answers + detailed explanations. Perfect for first-time, renewal applicants. IL CDL HazMat Test format: 30 questions. 24 correct answers to pass. 80% passing score. Study now.The Illinois hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The IL CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Illinois CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for ...Our CDL practice tests: Based on 2021 IL commercial driver's license manual. Full answers + detailed explanations. Perfect for first-time, renewal applicants. IL CDL HazMat Test format: 30 questions. 24 correct answers to pass. 80% passing score.A test for Illinois drivers to pass the hazardous materials fact sheet. The test covers topics such as different hazard classes, hazardous waste manifest, and hazardous …The questions have been based on the 2023 Illinois CDL drivers’ manual. The exam will consist of 30 multiple choice questions, and you will need at least 80% (24 out of 30) to pass the HazMat endorsement exam. Passing the HazMat exam is …Check our CDL Hazmat Study Guide and Hazmat practice test to get ready for your coming exam. 2. H endorsement cost in some U.S states. H endorsement cost in Pennsylvania. ... Class A, B, or C Illinois CDL : $ 60: Renewing current Illinois license: $ 60: Upgrade class CDL: $ 5:. Jan 19, 2013 · There are many online CDL hazmat endorsement pOn our website, we provide FREE practice - CDL hazma Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Commercial Learner's Permit (CLP) Address Change. Air Brake and other CDL associated Restrictions. CDL Study Guide. Charter Bus Endorsement. CDL and Non-CDL Classifications. CDL Medical. Drivers Exempt From Obtaining a CDL. Duplicate/Corrected. Pass your CDL Exam on your First Try: https://bi To obtain a HazMat endorsement in Illinois, you must take a written test consisting of 30 questions and achieve at least an 80% test score. You can find the study material in section 9 of your Illinois CDL Manual. The topics cover: The intent of the regulations. Transportation of hazardous material.The Illinois hazmat test consists of 30 questions. To pass, you must correctly answer at least 24 questions (80%). The IL CDL hazmat test covers the information found in the Illinois CDL Manual. Study the chapter covering hazardous materials to learn how to recognize, handle, and transport Hazmat, then take this practice test to prepare for ... When it comes to hazardous materials, sa...

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